Changing Station Composition Makes The USHCN Adjustments Produce A False Warming Bias

Zeke says that you can’t use absolute temperatures because of “changing station composition.” He should probably tell this to NCDC and USHCN who use exclusively absolute US temperatures.

In fact, changing station composition is one of the reasons why their adjustments are incorrect and create a warming bias.

E = a monthly value could not be computed from daily data. The value is estimated using values from surrounding stations

They can’t do this, because of changing station composition. As rural stations are lost, the infilling process contaminates them with warmer urban stations.

All of the stations listed below had final reported data in December, 2013 which was marked with an “E”  look how many of these missing stations are rural.

HIGHLAND HOME Alabama

BUCKEYE Arizona
CHANDLER HEIGHT Arizona
CHILDS Arizona
FT VALLEY Arizona
GRAND CANYON NP Arizona
HOLBROOK Arizona
KINGMAN #2 Arizona
LEES FERRY Arizona
MIAMI Arizona
PARKER Arizona
SACATON Arizona
SAFFORD AGRICUL Arizona
SAINT JOHNS Arizona
TUCSON WFO Arizona
WHITERIVER 1 SW Arizona
YUMA CITRUS STN Arizona

EUREKA SPRINGS Arkansas

BLYTHE California
BRAWLEY 2 SW California
CHICO UNIV FARM California
COLFAX California
CUYAMACA California
DAVIS 2 WSW EXP California
ELECTRA P H California
FAIRMONT California
FT BRAGG 5 N California
HAPPY CAMP RS California
HEALDSBURG California
INDIO FIRE STN California
LAKE SPAULDING California
LEMON COVE California
LIVERMORE California
LODI California
MARYSVILLE California
MERCED California
OJAI California
REDDING MUNI AP California
REDLANDS California
SANTA CRUZ California
SANTA ROSA California
TAHOE CITY California
TUSTIN IRVINE R California
UKIAH California
VACAVILLE California
WEAVERVILLE California
YOSEMITE PARK H California

CHEYENNE WELLS Colorado
COLLBRAN Colorado
DEL NORTE 2E Colorado
FRUITA Colorado
HERMIT 7 ESE Colorado
HOLLY Colorado
LAMAR Colorado
SAGUACHE Colorado
TELLURIDE 4WNW Colorado

STAMFORD 5 N Connecticut

GREENWOOD 2NE Delaware
MILFORD 2 SE Delaware
NEWARK UNIV FAR Delaware

APALACHICOLA AP Florida
BARTOW Florida
BELLE GLADE Florida
DE FUNIAK SPRIN Florida
FEDERAL POINT Florida
FERNANDINA BEAC Florida
KEY WEST INTL A Florida
OCALA Florida
PERRINE 4W Florida
TARPON SPGS SEW Florida
TITUSVILLE Florida

BAINBRIDGE INTL Georgia
BRUNSWICK Georgia
COVINGTON Georgia
DAHLONEGA Georgia
EASTMAN 1 W Georgia
GLENNVILLE 3NW Georgia
MILLEN 4 N Georgia
NEWNAN 5N Georgia
QUITMAN 2 NW Georgia
ROME Georgia
TALBOTTON Georgia
WASHINGTON 2 ES Georgia
WAYCROSS 4 NE Georgia
WEST POINT Georgia

ABERDEEN EXP ST Idaho
BERN Idaho
GLENNS FERRY Idaho
GRACE Idaho
KETCHUM RS Idaho
MOSCOW U OF I Idaho
OAKLEY Idaho
SANDPOINT EXP S Idaho

ANNA 2 NNE Illinois
DIXON 1 NW Illinois
HARRISBURG Illinois
LINCOLN Illinois
MCLEANSBORO Illinois
SPARTA 1 W Illinois

CAMBRIDGE CITY Indiana
CHARLESTOWN 5 N Indiana
DELPHI 2 N Indiana
GREENCASTLE 1 W Indiana
HOBART 2 WNW Indiana
MADISON SEWAGE Indiana
RENSSELAER Indiana
ROCHESTER Indiana
ROCKVILLE Indiana
SALEM Indiana
SCOTTSBURG Indiana
SEYMOUR 2 N Indiana
VEVAY Indiana
WHEATFIELD Indiana

BELLE PLAINE Iowa

ASHLAND Kansas
ATCHISON Kansas
ELLSWORTH Kansas
FT SCOTT Kansas
LARNED Kansas
LEAVENWORTH Kansas
LIBERAL Kansas
MCPHERSON Kansas
MEDICINE LODGE Kansas
OLATHE 3E Kansas
OTTAWA Kansas

ASHLAND Kentucky
BEREA COLLEGE Kentucky
FARMERS 2 S Kentucky
FRANKFORT DOWNT Kentucky
HOPKINSVILLE Kentucky
LEITCHFIELD 2 N Kentucky
SHELBYVILLE 1 E Kentucky
WILLIAMSBURG Kentucky
WILLIAMSTOWN 3 Kentucky

AMITE Louisiana
BASTROP Louisiana
COVINGTON 4 NNW Louisiana
HOUMA Louisiana
NEW ORLEANS AUD Louisiana
PLAIN DEALING 4 Louisiana
ST JOSEPH 3 N Louisiana

EASTPORT Maine
LEWISTON Maine
MILLINOCKET Maine
WOODLAND Maine

CAMBRIDGE WATER Maryland
CHESTERTOWN Maryland
DENTON 2 E Maryland
GLENN DALE BELL Maryland
MILLINGTON 1 SE Maryland
OWINGS FERRY LA Maryland
PRINCESS ANNE Maryland
ROYAL OAK 2 SSW Maryland
SALISBURY Maryland
WESTMINSTER POL Maryland
WOODSTOCK Maryland

BEDFORD Massachusetts
GREAT BARRINGTO Massachusetts
LAWRENCE Massachusetts
NEW BEDFORD Massachusetts
PLYMOUTH-KINGST Massachusetts
PROVINCETOWN Massachusetts
TAUNTON Massachusetts
WEST MEDWAY Massachusetts

ALLEGAN 5NE Michigan
CHAMPION VAN RI Michigan
COLDWATER ST SC Michigan
EAST TAWAS Michigan
FAYETTE 4 SW Michigan
KALAMAZOO STATE Michigan

CHASKA Minnesota
DETROIT LAKES 1 Minnesota
FAIRMONT Minnesota
FARMINGTON 3 NW Minnesota
FOSSTON 1 E Minnesota
MARCELL 5NE Minnesota
NEW ULM 2 SE Minnesota
OLIVIA 3E Minnesota
ROSEAU Minnesota
SANDY LAKE DAM Minnesota
WALKER AH GWAH Minnesota

ABERDEEN Mississippi
BATESVILLE 2 SW Mississippi
BROOKHAVEN CITY Mississippi
CANTON 4N Mississippi
CLARKSDALE Mississippi
COLUMBIA Mississippi
FOREST Mississippi
GREENVILLE Mississippi
HOLLY SPRINGS 4 Mississippi
LAUREL Mississippi
MONTICELLO Mississippi
PASCAGOULA 3 NE Mississippi
POPLARVILLE EXP Mississippi
PORT GIBSON 1 N Mississippi
UNIVERSITY Mississippi
WATER VALLEY Mississippi
WAVELAND Mississippi
WOODVILLE 4 ESE Mississippi

CARUTHERSVILLE Missouri
FARMINGTON Missouri
LEES SUMMIT REE Missouri
LEXINGTON 3E Missouri
MEXICO Missouri
NEOSHO Missouri
TRUMAN DAM & RS Missouri

ANACONDA Montana
AUGUSTA Montana
FLATWILLOW 4 EN Montana
FORKS 4 NNE Montana
FORTINE 1 N Montana
HEBGEN DAM Montana
LIBBY 1 NE RS Montana
MOCCASIN EXP ST Montana
PHILIPSBURG RS Montana
SAINT IGNATIUS Montana
SAINT REGIS 1 N Montana
WEST YELLOWSTON Montana

ALBION Nebraska
ASHLAND NO 2 Nebraska
BEATRICE 1N Nebraska
FAIRMONT Nebraska
FRANKLIN Nebraska
GENEVA Nebraska
HAY SPRINGS 12 Nebraska
LOUP CITY Nebraska
MADISON Nebraska
MC COOK Nebraska
MERRIMAN Nebraska
MINDEN Nebraska
NORTH LOUP Nebraska
SAINT PAUL 4N Nebraska
WAKEFIELD Nebraska
WEEPING WATER Nebraska
YORK Nebraska

AUSTIN #2 Nevada
BOULDER CITY Nevada
GOLCONDA Nevada
MCGILL Nevada
RENO AP Nevada
WELLS Nevada

BETHLEHEM 2 New Hampshire

MOORESTOWN New Jersey
PLAINFIELD New Jersey
TOMS RIVER New Jersey

BELL RANCH New Mexico
CARRIZOZO 1SW New Mexico
CHAMA New Mexico
ELEPHANT BUTTE New Mexico
FT BAYARD New Mexico
FT SUMNER New Mexico
GAGE New Mexico
JEMEZ SPRINGS New Mexico
LAS VEGAS WWTP New Mexico
SANTA ROSA New Mexico
SPRINGER New Mexico
TULAROSA New Mexico

BRIDGEHAMPTON New York
BROCKPORT New York
CHAZY New York
CORTLAND New York
DEPOSIT New York
DOBBS FERRY ARD New York
FREDONIA New York
GLENHAM New York
GLOVERSVILLE New York
LAWRENCEVILLE 3 New York
LITTLE FALLS CI New York
LITTLE FALLS MI New York
LOCKPORT 3 S New York
MORRISVILLE 6 S New York
OSWEGO EAST New York
SETAUKET STRONG New York
STILLWATER RSVR New York
UTICA FAA AP New York
WANAKENA RNGR S New York

CHAPEL HILL 2 W North Carolina
GOLDSBORO 4 SE North Carolina
HIGHLANDS North Carolina
MARION 2 NW North Carolina
SALISBURY North Carolina
WILSON 3 SW North Carolina

CROSBY North Dakota
DICKINSON EXP S North Dakota
FT YATES 4 SW North Dakota
GRAFTON North Dakota
HETTINGER North Dakota
HILLSBORO 3 N North Dakota
LANGDON EXP FAR North Dakota
LISBON North Dakota
MOFFIT 3 SE North Dakota
MOTT North Dakota
WAHPETON 3 N North Dakota

CADIZ Ohio
COSHOCTON WPC P Ohio
DELAWARE Ohio
GREENVILLE WTP Ohio
MC CONNELLSVILL Ohio
MILLPORT 4 NE Ohio
OBERLIN Ohio
PHILO 3 SW Ohio
TIFFIN Ohio
UPPER SANDUSKY Ohio
URBANA WWTP Ohio

ADA Oklahoma
ALTUS IRIG RSCH Oklahoma
ARDMORE Oklahoma
BUFFALO 2 SSW Oklahoma
CARNEGIE 5 NE Oklahoma
CHEROKEE Oklahoma
DURANT Oklahoma
ERICK Oklahoma
GEARY Oklahoma
GOODWELL RSCH S Oklahoma
HAMMON 3 SSW Oklahoma
HENNESSEY 4 ESE Oklahoma
HOLDENVILLE 2SS Oklahoma
JEFFERSON Oklahoma
KENTON Oklahoma
KINGFISHER Oklahoma
LAWTON Oklahoma
MANGUM Oklahoma
MUTUAL Oklahoma
NEWKIRK 1NW Oklahoma
OKEENE Oklahoma
OKEMAH Oklahoma
OKMULGEE WTR WK Oklahoma
PAULS VALLEY 4 Oklahoma
PERRY Oklahoma
POTEAU WTR WKS Oklahoma
STILLWATER 2 W Oklahoma
TAHLEQUAH Oklahoma
WAURIKA Oklahoma
WEATHERFORD Oklahoma
WEBBERS FALLS 5 Oklahoma

BAKER CITY AP Oregon
BROOKINGS 2 SE Oregon
CASCADIA Oregon
COTTAGE GROVE 1 Oregon
DUFUR Oregon
FREMONT 5 NW Oregon
HERMISTON 1 SE Oregon
HOOD RIVER EXP Oregon
KLAMATH FALLS 2 Oregon
LAKEVIEW 2 NNW Oregon
MC MINNVILLE Oregon
NEWPORT Oregon
NORTH BEND FCWO Oregon
ROSEBURG KQEN Oregon
TILLAMOOK 1 W Oregon
UNION EXP STN Oregon
VALE Oregon

EISENHOWER NHS Pennsylvania
GREENVILLE 2 NE Pennsylvania
JOHNSTOWN Pennsylvania
MONTROSE Pennsylvania
NEW CASTLE 1 N Pennsylvania
PALMERTON Pennsylvania
READING 4 NNW Pennsylvania
YORK 3 SSW PUMP Pennsylvania

BLOCK ISLAND ST Rhode Island

AIKEN 5SE South Carolina
BEAUFORT WWTP South Carolina
BLACKVILLE 3 W South Carolina
CAMDEN 3 W South Carolina
CHARLESTON CITY South Carolina
COLUMBIA UNIV O South Carolina
GEORGETOWN 2 E South Carolina
GREENWOOD South Carolina
KERSHAW 1SW South Carolina
KINGSTREE South Carolina

ABERDEEN RGNL A South Dakota
ALEXANDRIA South Dakota
CLARK South Dakota
DUPREE South Dakota
EUREKA South Dakota
GANN VALLEY 4NW South Dakota
MILBANK 4 NW South Dakota
OAHE DAM South Dakota

CLARKSVILLE WWT Tennessee
COPPERHILL Tennessee

ALICE Texas
BALMORHEA Texas
BEEVILLE 5 NE Texas
BOERNE Texas
BRENHAM Texas
CATARINA Texas
CLARKSVILLE 2NE Texas
DUBLIN 2SE Texas
ENCINAL Texas
FALFURRIAS Texas
FT STOCKTON Texas
GAINESVILLE 5 E Texas
GREENVILLE KGVL Texas
HASKELL Texas
LAMPASAS Texas
LULING Texas
MEXIA Texas
MIAMI Texas
NEW BRAUNFELS Texas
PECOS Texas
QUANAH 2 SW Texas
SAN ANTONIO INT Texas
TEMPLE Texas

ALTON Utah
BLANDING Utah
CORINNE Utah
DUCHESNE Utah
FARMINGTON 3 NW Utah
GREEN RIVER AVI Utah
HANKSVILLE Utah
HEBER Utah
MANTI Utah
MARYSVALE Utah
MODENA Utah
MORGAN POWER & Utah
OGDEN PIONEER P Utah
PAROWAN PWR Utah
ST GEORGE Utah
SNAKE CREEK POW Utah
THOMPSON Utah
UTAH LAKE LEHI Utah

CAVENDISH Vermont
CHELSEA Vermont
ENOSBURG FALLS Vermont
SOUTH LINCOLN Vermont

BREMO BLUFF Virginia
CHARLOTTESVILLE Virginia
DANVILLE Virginia
FREDERICKSBURG Virginia
PENNINGTON GAP Virginia
WILLIAMSBURG 2 Virginia

BUCKLEY 1 NE Washington
MC MILLIN RSVR Washington
ODESSA Washington
OLGA 2 SE Washington
POMEROY Washington
PORT ANGELES Washington
PORT TOWNSEND Washington
RAYMOND 2 S Washington
SAINT JOHN Washington
SEATTLE URBAN S Washington
SNOQUALMIE FALL Washington
STEHEKIN 4 NW Washington
SUNNYSIDE Washington
VANCOUVER 4 NNE Washington
WILBUR Washington

CAIRO West Virginia
PARSONS 1 NE West Virginia
PICKENS 2 N West Virginia
WELLSBURG WTR T West Virginia

ASHLAND EXP FAR Wisconsin
BOWLER Wisconsin
NEILLSVILLE 3 S Wisconsin

CODY Wyoming
COLONY Wyoming
DIVERSION DAM Wyoming
LUSK 2 SW Wyoming
MORAN 5 WNW Wyoming
NEWCASTLE Wyoming
PINE BLUFFS 5W Wyoming
PINEDALE Wyoming
SARATOGA Wyoming
TORRINGTON EXP Wyoming

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22 Responses to Changing Station Composition Makes The USHCN Adjustments Produce A False Warming Bias

  1. The Scarlet Pimpernel says:

    Of the two states where I know where the stations are located… ALL the missing ones are rural. Hmmm…

    Yet there’s one included here that’s on the riverbank and reads up to 60 degrees warmer than the real air temp all winter long.

  2. I live in Temple, TX.
    It has a population of about 70,000.
    Is that rural?
    The station was located next to the landfill.
    Not exactly a good place for a weather station.
    Constant changes to the land as it is being scraped, moved, replaced as garbage is being buried.

    Do I wish Temple still had a station?
    Yes.
    Was the old station a well sited one?
    No.

  3. jmrSudbury says:

    Temple USHCN station was closed in 2003 apparently. — John M Reynolds

  4. Cheshirered says:

    As an ordinary Joe, what would I know?

    The answer is (to me) that the moment ‘adjustments’ are allowed – which by their definition are almost certain to be arbitrary and subjective, then Mr Doubt comes bounding into the room, inevitably accompanied by Messrs Confirmation and Bias. Miss Certainty then slips out the back door shaking her head, leaving the new ‘state of the art data’ worth the same as an old boot.

    Measured data says X. If there’s subjective adjustments then surely they should be acknowledged and the original data MUST be made readily available for comparison?

  5. jmrSudbury says:

    Steven, a single month is not enough. How many on your list have had estimated data in the six months inclusive since Dec 2013? It is the stations that have been closed but still have current data that is the easiest issue to fight. — John M Reynolds

    • The point is that 34% of the data in December, 2013 was fabricated. The other months in 2013 had similar percentages.

      • jmrSudbury says:

        The temperature record back to 1800s is the best we have. You are pointing out that it is not as okay as we thought it was as it is being adjusted improperly. It seems to me that Anthony thinks a single month or even two months of one station being infilled is to be expected when equipment fails and needs to be replaced. I am suggesting that you need more than a single month. Is there a list of which stations, like Temple Texas, that have closed? Using the -9999 is only a guess that the station has closed. It could be the whole fire station missing weekends idea that others are easily willing to forgive. I like your point that infilling from urban to rural has yielded estimates that are too high. This is easiest to show for long strings of -9999, or even better for stations that have closed and should no longer have data.

  6. Bruce says:

    My hometown has one of the no longer existing weather stations .. apparently NOAA is still producing temperature records identified as being those of the Anna IL weather station but there’s not a real physical weather station there anymore. The actual weather station that once existed was on the Bon Hartline orchard just outside of town. There’s no orchard there anymore … the whole area is mostly parking lots for various businesses now. Here’s a blurb from Bon Hartline’s obit:

    ….. Along with all of those great achievements, Bon was the Official Weather Observer from 1945-1995 in the Union County area. He was also the Official Weather Observer for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from 1945 – 1995. He received the Edward H. Stroll Award for serving 50 or more years as a cooperative weather observer by the United States Department of Commerce.
    ……
    http://www.annanews.com/obituaries/article_b69dfb70-a9b7-11e1-bebd-0019bb2963f4.html

    I can recall after every thunderstorm, the local radio station and newspaper would report how many inches of rain Bon Hartline had reported. His rainfall and temperature records and etc. were the official record, treated as such by local media as well as US government agencies.

  7. _Jim says:

    Hmmm … “GREENVILLE KGVL Texas” adjacent to a radio station (1400 kHz) off a country road, next to open fields as viewed using Google earth. Wonder why this one showed up?

    This station is also due east of me by a county.

    .

    • Chip Bennett says:

      It went the way of the 40s warming – i.e. down the memory hole?

      • _Jim says:

        Looking at the site data now … nothing untoward that I can determine:

        http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/homr/#ncdcstnid=20025576&tab=MISC

        The MISC data tab shows this:

        2010-12-02 to Present NWS COOP INGEST ADD SECONDARY OBSVR.

        2009-05-01 to Present NWS COOP INGEST CHANGE REPORTING METHOD TO PAPERLESS.

        2007-02-21 to Present NWS COOP INGEST CHANGE PRIMARY FOCAL. CHANGE REPORTING FROM IVROCS TO WXCODER. UPDATE DRIVING DIRECTIONS.

        2006-04-06 to Present NWS COOP INGEST SRG MOVED 30 FT SOUTH. MMTS SENSOR MOVED 75 FT SOUTH. UPDATED GPS. CHANGED TEMP DISPLAY TO NIMBUS. DELETED PHONE FROM EQUIP INVENTORY. CHANGED PRIMARY FOCAL.

  8. Pathway says:

    Looking at the Colorado stations, all missing stations are rural and 4 of them are in the mountains. I think that would make a huge difference.
    It also appears that most on the missing UT stations are rural, as well.

  9. talldave2 says:

    Great point, Steve. I am disappointed I didn’t realize this right away, seems so obvious in retrospect.

  10. Gail Combs says:

    Most of the sites in North Carolina go from very rural to suburban. Here is a quick rundown.

    CHAPEL HILL 2 W North Carolina (pop from University of North Carolina so varies) just south of Raleigh in the piedmont
    Cosgrove Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (PWS) This is a rather built up area just off the four lane 15/501.

    Horace Williams Airport (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States) weather station… based on the historical records from 2001 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.

    … The area within 25 miles of this station is covered by forests (88%), built-up areas (5%), croplands (4%), and lakes and rivers (4%).
    http://weatherspark.com/averages/30576/1/Chapel-Hill-North-Carolina-United-States

    GOLDSBORO 4 SE North Carolina (pop: 37,597) it is in the piedmont SE of Raleigh
    RAWS FINCH\’S STATION NC US, Goldsboro, North Carolina (PWS)

    Seymour Johnson Air Force Base (Goldsboro, North Carolina, United States) …It is based on the historical records from 1974 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.

    … The area within 25 miles of this station is covered by croplands (74%), forests (24%), and built-up areas (2%).
    http://weatherspark.com/averages/30406/1/Goldsboro-North-Carolina-United-States

    HIGHLANDS North Carolina, ( permanent population was 924, swells to 10,000-15,000 during the season from spring to fall.) In the mountains near the NC/SC/GA border -TheWrightPlace Hwy. 64 E, Highlands, North Carolina (PWS) (64 is a main road going from two lane to limited access four lane across NC. In this area it is probably 2 lane.)
    (this site dumps me to nearby Franklin, North Carolina)

    …based on the historical records from 2004 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.

    Franklin, North Carolina… area within 25 miles of this station is covered by forests (98%).

    MARION 2 NW North Carolina (pop: 7,943) in the mountains near a reservoir and state park.
    Ridge Road, Marion, North Carolina (PWS)
    (Site dumps me to nearby Morganton-Lenoir Airport (Morganton, North Carolina, United States))

    The area within 25 miles of this station is covered by forests (95%) and croplands (3%).

    SALISBURY North Carolina (pop: 33,663 ) It is getting into the mountains in that area.
    Blanton Law Firm, Salisbury, North Carolina (PWS)

    Rowan County Airport (Salisbury, North Carolina, United States)… based on the historical records from 2002 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.

    …. The area within 25 miles of this station is covered by forests (89%), croplands (5%), lakes and rivers (3%), and built-up areas (3%).

    WILSON 3 SW North Carolina (pop: 50,652)
    Wilson Country Club, Wilson, North Carolina (PWS)
    Coastal Plain region but not near the ocean
    (Site dumps me to Rocky Mount Regional Airport (Rocky Mount, North Carolina)

    Rocky Mount Regional Airport (Rocky Mount, North Carolina…based on the historical records from 1996 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.

    ….The area within 25 miles of this station is covered by croplands (55%) and forests (42%).

  11. Irregular says:

    If memory serves, the Tucson Weather Forecasting Office was moved from it’s location at the airport (probably using a shaded box out at the end of a runway somewhere for temperature observations) to a mid-town location. I doubt that change was benign in terms of temperature reporting.

  12. Irregular says:

    And the Yuma Citrus Station, no doubt surrounded by uninhabited orange groves when it was established, is likely now surrounded by development, too. I’d bet the new reporting scheme is reporting higher temperatures on average, in an already high temperature area — the lower Colorado River valley.

  13. cdquarles says:

    Highland Home is in Crenshaw County (pop approx. 13,000) and is located on US 331, between Montgomery and Luverne. Local population is about 1200, but it is located near Montgomery County, where the capital is located. Montgomery County population is about 250,000. So, it is sort-of rural, sort-of suburban. Oh yeah, the elevation in that part of Alabama is around 100 feet about MSL and this is the hottest part of the state. Many state high temp records are found in/near Montgomery/Troy/Ft. Rucker, and upward toward Tuscaloosa and Birmingham. See http://coolweather.net/statetemperature/alabama-temperature.htm .

  14. Gamecock says:

    Interesting.

    COLUMBIA UNIV O South Carolina

    South Carolina, with great fanfare in Dec 2012, announced a state record temperature had been set at this site in June, 2012. I sent a message to the governor’s office that the site was at best a CRN Class 3 station, and not suitable for a record. They ignored me. I thought.

    Now, they aren’t using it. It was the official station for 40 some years.

  15. Phil Jones says:

    Great finds folks… They say the Urban Heat Island effect doesn’t exist… Yet appear to be using it to promote Global Warming…

    What a joke… Hypocrites… The Climate-gate emails said it all.. Said exactly what they’re doing… And this analysis demonstrates it…

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