64% Growth In Arctic Sea Ice Since 2012

Experts say the Arctic is melting down, as coverage has grown 64% since the same date in 2012. Green shows gain, red shows loss.

ScreenHunter_2359 Aug. 27 19.30

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57 Responses to 64% Growth In Arctic Sea Ice Since 2012

  1. 1957chev says:

    Maybe those people are color-blind….

  2. philjourdan says:

    OMG!!! At this rate, the northern hemisphere will be covered in just 5 years! Call Algore!

  3. FergalR says:

    Typical Jim and his ludicrous tweeted pictograms – never around when you need a good laugh.

    Neven’s comment section – usually a great font of hilarious hair-shirted eschatology – has been quiet as a mouse lately too.

  4. SouthernGal says:

    According to some people, global warming is a myth. LMAO

    • mjc says:

      As defined by the IPCC…yes as mythical as dragons and unicorns. As a well known natural process that has been occuring long before humanity came to be…nope, not mythical at all.

    • Gail Combs says:

      Yeah, most people with any geology courses LTAO at global warming.

      I suggest you hope and pray that CO2 does what the IPCC says it does though even that may not be near enough. Mankind’s contribution being just 1.5 W/m 2 for the forcing of anthropogenic CO2 [cf., Reid, 1997].

      The Holocene interglacial is now 11,717 years old….. That’s two centuries or so beyond half the present precession cycle (or 23,000/2=11,500). Only one interglacial , MIS-11, since the Mid-Pleistocene Transition has lasted longer than about half a precession cycle.

      Some think the only reason the Holocene did not end during the Little Ice age is because the just ending Grand Solar Maximum kicked in in time to save our collective rearends. See A History of Solar Activity over Millennia Dr. Ilya G. Usoskin of the Sodankyl ̈ Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit)

      Any hope that the Holocene would go long was shot down by Lisiecki and Raymo in 2005 in their rebuttal of Loutre and Berger, 2003. Since then no one in Quaternary Science has rebutted Lisiecki and Raymo. Not a fact to give one warm fussy feelings.

      If you think the Medieval Warm Period and the current Modern Warm Period negates the possibility of the Holocene ending think again.

      Boettger et al 2009 (Quaternary International 207 [2009] 137–144) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040618209001475 (paywalled)

      …. the end of the Last Interglacial seems to be characterized by evident climatic and environmental instabilities recorded by geochemical and vegetation indicators. The transition (MIS 5e/5d) from the Last Interglacial (Eemian, Mikulino) to the Early Last Glacial (Early Weichselian, Early Valdai) is marked by at least two warming events as observed in geochemical data on the lake sediment profiles of Central (Gro¨bern, Neumark–Nord, Klinge) and of Eastern Europe (Ples). Results of palynological studies of all these sequences indicate simultaneously a strong increase of environmental oscillations during the very end of the Last Interglacial and the beginning of the Last Glaciation. This paper discusses possible correlations of these events between regions in Central and Eastern Europe. The pronounced climate and environment instability during the interglacial/glacial transition could be consistent with the assumption that it is about a natural phenomenon, characteristic for transitional stages….

      And just in case you were wondering the “Polar Vortex” of last winter coincides with the same land area as was covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet of the Wisconsin Ice age, the earth’s last ice age.

      Even if the earth does not descend into an interglacial, the climate during the solar insulation lows between the two solar insolation peaks of MIS 11 was quite the rough ride since it was near the solar insolation transition boundary.

      To give you a feel for how close to glaciation we are, you can look at the calculations from NOAA:

      NOW (modern Warm Period) 476 Wm-2
      Holocene peak insolation: 522.5 Wm-2 (46.5 Wm−2 difference)
      depth of the last ice age – around 463 Wm−2 (13 Wm−2 difference)
      The earth is a heck of a lot closer to glaciation than it is to peak warming. Remember ALL the energy comes from the sun not from greenhouse gases that just retard the escape of the sun’s energy.

      A paper from 2007 “Lesson from the past: present insolation minimum holds potential for glacial inception ” says

      Because the intensities of the 397 ka BP and present insolation minima are very similar, we conclude that under natural boundary conditions the present insolation minimum holds the potential to terminate the Holocene interglacial. Our findings support the Ruddiman hypothesis [Ruddiman, W., 2003.]…

      The Ruddiman hypothesis says the activities of man are the only thing that has kept the earth from glacial inception.

      A fall 2012 paper “Can we predict the duration of an interglacial? ” says…

      ..although it has been unclear whether the subdued current summer insolation minimum (479 W m−2 ), the lowest of the last 800 kyr, would be sufficient to lead to glaciation (e.g. Crucifix, 2011). Comparison with MIS 19c, a close astronomical analogue characterized by an equally weak summer insolation minimum (474 W m−2 ) and a smaller overall decrease from maximum summer solstice insolation values, suggests that glacial inception is possible despite the subdued insolation forcing, if CO2 concentrations were 240 ± 5 ppmv (Tzedakis et al., 2012). …..

      The 2012 paper, gives the solar insolation for termination of several interglacials. It gives the current values for insolation = 479 W m−2

      MIS 7e – insolation = 463 W m−2,
      MIS 11c – insolation = 466 W m−2,
      MIS 13a – insolation = 500 W m−2,
      MIS 15a – insolation = 480 W m−2,
      MIS 17 – insolation = 477 W m−2,

    • Gail Combs says:

      And SouthernGal,
      I forgot to mention even NASA thinks we maybe entering a solar minimum and that has other effects than just the climate.

      …the Space and Science Research Center (SSRC) releases its preliminary findings of the incidence of major geophysical events including earthquakes and volcanoes tied to the Sun’s activity and climate change.

      The SSRC, the leading independent research center in the United States on the subject of the next climate change to a period of extended cold weather, has concluded a detailed comparison of solar activity with major earthquakes and volcanic activity. It has found a significant correlation exists between periods of reduced activity by the Sun, previously linked to cold climates are now identified with the most disastrous earthquakes in the United States and major volcanic eruptions around the globe.

      The research for this preliminary study was completed in September 2009…..

      If you bothered to read your history you would find famine caused by a large volcanic eruption along with a solar minimum is considered a cause of the French Revolution.

  5. Yes, but by 2016 we’ll be able to ride jet-skis to the North Pole! I swearz!

  6. John McLachlan says:


    The alarmists are correct: 400 ppm CO2 obviously represents a tipping point in the earth’s climate.

    It has in a matter of only months led to a 64% increase in Arctic sea ice, since 2012.

    • mjc says:

      Theactual tipping point the were hoping for at 400ppm was a monetary one…hit 400 ppm and suddenly all the fence sitters and the ‘unwashed masses’ would be willing to donate huge sums of money to save themselves. This would be in addition to a new wave of grant funding to seek a solution.

  7. I walked into a global warming “debate” in the break room at work. I told the liberal the arctic ice cap has grown 60% since 2012. I told him about this very map that I saw on your blog, with the green areas of added ice vastly outweighing the red areas of subtracted ice. He said there are other experts saying the opposite, and where does the funding come from for the “deniers”?

    The guy was perfectly content to say “you have your facts, I have mine.” So, détente, apparently. No resolution preserves the untenable status quo, which of course he favors.

    Liberals cling to their own facts opposite reality, even when those facts are made up out of thin air.

    • “It isn’t so much that liberals are ignorant. It’s just that they know so many things that aren’t so.”
      ― Ronald Reagan

    • Gail Combs says:

      Read this:
      It explains why real world facts will never make a dent in the head of a liberal.

      • Caleb says:

        When New England gets its first serious arctic blast since 1994 this winter, (the winter of 1976-1977 is showing up as a analog of current conditions, and that was worse than 1994), the grid will not be able to handle it, as they are shutting down a crucial coal-powered plant. As the power shuts down with temperatures well below zero, a situation may swiftly develop that can even dent the thick skull of a liberal.

        • philjourdan says:

          You mean last winter was not cold enough for that area?

        • Caleb says:

          It was cold, but the worst cold was to our west. I think the axis of cold was down through Minnesota, last winter. This winter could well be further east.

        • philjourdan says:

          Keep it north as well. Like you, I was not in the core. But it was cold enough for me!

        • mjc says:

          They didn’t lose power…or at least a widespread outage didn’t occur.

        • Caleb says:

          We came very close to a shut down, or some sort of brown-out, last winter. What saved the day was a coal-fired plant. That plant is to be closed down this January, likely in the coldest weather, due to a stupid EPA regulation.

        • Gail Combs says:

          We can only hope this winter is tough enough to serve as a wakeup call.

          I remember the winter of 1976-1977.
          I was in Rochester NY trying to get a stuck semi unstuck. It was blocking the entire entrance/exit of the factory where I worked trapping the first shift in the parking lot. Luckily I carried emergency supplies including bags of sand and a shovel and got him unstuck so my roomie and I got home safe.

          That was a really really nasty cold winter.

          No where is _Jim to tell us there is no problem with the electric grid and we are just ‘conspiracy nuts’

        • Caleb says:

          Another thing about that winter was that there was sea-ice right down to coastal Virginia. It had one of the few Januaries I can remember where there wasn’t a thaw.

          I was young then, and it was rough. Now I’m not so hot blooded, and can understand how cold winters can kill people ten or twenty years older than I, especially if their house gets cold.

          If they shut down the coal fired power plant near here due to some idiotic regulation the EPA has concocted to fight Global Warming, they know the grid will fail, houses will get cold, and old people will die. I don’t call that mismanagement. I call that murder. They can just as well wait until April.

          I think the more people who call them out on this dunderheaded power-plant-closure beforehand, the less they can say they had no idea the grid-failure would happen. And it will happen. So I am going to do my best to give them a wake-up-call before Mother Nature gives them one. And I am going to point out the difference between “mismanagement” and “murder.”

          Its funny, but politicians sit up and take notice when you even suggest a word like “murder” might appear on their record.

        • philjourdan says:

          I was in College. I remember them worrying about Tangier Island and how the residents would get staples. But that was like my first winter in Virginia since I was 9, so I thought that was normal.

          Kind of like the alarmist must think that winter was like.

        • mjc says:

          Just the other day, several eastern power companies issued warnings/statements about possible shortages if things got too cold (there was one on Drudge, but I can’t remember the exact day…).

          One of the things they are worried about around here, is there are still a lot of ‘temporary’ repairs from 2 yrs ago. The late June storm and Sandy both clobbered this state and most of the grid is pretty much just spliced back together. Didn’t help that there were a couple of good sized storms that took out a bunch of those temp repairs, this summer, In extreme cold, those temp repairs are possible fail points.

          But I guess none of that really matters..either.

          They just haven’t had the time or manpower to replace all the temp repairs with permanent ones, yet.

          All of that has nothing to do with reduced capacity, but it’s just one more potential problem.

          And something not related to the power grid but, rather the cold. The big chemical spill that shut off the water for over 300,000 people for a couple of weeks, here…weather related. The extreme cold caused ice to punch a hole in the tank…or that’s what was in the last report, as the most likely cause.

        • Caleb says:

          What bugs me is to close a power plant when you have no replacement.

        • philjourdan says:

          Kind of like the Jews and their exodus. God provided manna from heaven for the jews. Liberals figure global warming will provide warmth. Especially when they adjust the numbers up – then people will be freezing to death in 60 degree weather.

  8. rah says:

    In the liberal progressive mind “Facts” are only those pieces of information with which they agree and that is all they ever want to hear no matter what the contradictory evidence. That is until their leaders or money tell them to change their minds.

    • mjc says:

      That’s true of the hard-core, true believer. But the rank and file jumps ship when it becomes personally difficult. It’s fun watching the die-hard, multi-generation Dems jump ship around here, over the whole war on coal thing. Even local union bosses are jumping ship.

      • rah says:

        Having dealt once with a UMW picket line I have no comment.

        • mjc says:

          It’s the WV branch and only the last year or two…and it’s much more evident this time. Come November it’s going to be interesting here. They are really pissed…in the last month or so, over 1500 lay off notices have gone out, so yeah, they are pissed.

  9. Gail Combs says:

    Caleb says: August 29, 2014 at 11:32 pm

    What bugs me is to close a power plant when you have no replacement.
    Actually what you are seeing is a power play in action.

    The Obama Admin were expecting that the plant closures would hit AFTER 2016 and like Clinton’s job export to China, get blamed on the Republican president that came afterwards.

    This time that tried and true political move is backfiring.

    **Update June 12, 2012**
    According to EPA, their modeling of Utility MACT and CSAPR indicates that these regulations will only shutter 9.5 GW of electricity generation capacity. But events in the real world already show that EPA’s modeling is a gross underestimate….

    Combining actual announcements with EPA’s modeling shows that EPA’s modeling grossly underestimates the actual number of closures… the reality is that over 35 GW of power generating capacity will likely close—over three times the amount predicted by EPA modeling. Worse, as utilities continue to assess how to comply with EPA’s finalized Utility MACT rule and CSAPR, there will likely be further plant closure announcements in the coming weeks and months.

    This is the real I Gottcha!

    …NERC, the nation’s leading authority on electric reliability, evaluated four major regulations now being proposed or implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and found them to expose the United States to significant energy vulnerabilities. NERC estimates that nearly a quarter of our coal-fired capacity could be off-line by 2018 and that as many as 677 coal-fired units (258 gigawatts) would need to be temporarily shut down to install EPA-mandated equipment.[ii] These EPA regulations must be implemented within a 3-year window and the mandated equipment takes about 18 months to install. Because EPA’s three year timeline is so tight and the regulations affect so many units, utility companies are not sure that they can meet the standards and ensure reliability of the electricity system at the same time.….

    What the politicians neglect to say is their plan for making this work is to install Smart Meters, an attractive opportunity for Investors This theoretically allows residential electricity to be turned off so the system can be balanced as wind and solar power surges and declines. Of course with renewables bankrupting, smart meters not installed and coal plants closing at three time the rate expected, this put a real big kink in that plan. OOPS, I guess the government miscalculated AGAIN so we are looking at rolling blackouts.

    The Department of Energy Report 2009

    A smart grid is needed at the distribution level to manage voltage levels, reactive power, potential reverse power flows, and power conditioning, all critical to running grid-connected DG systems, particularly with high penetrations of solar and wind power and PHEVs…. Designing and retrofitting household appliances, such as washers, dryers, and water heaters with technology to communicate and respond to market signals and user preferences via home automation technology will be a significant challenge. Substantial investment will be required….

    These controls and tools could reduce the occurrence of outages and power disturbances attributed to grid overload. They could also reduce planned rolling brownouts and blackouts like those implemented during the energy crisis in California in 2000.

    ERCOTdescribes how Smart Meters work:

    Energy InSight FAQs

    ….Rolling outages are systematic, temporary interruptions of electrical service.
    They are the last step in a progressive series of emergency procedures that ERCOT follows when it detects that there is a shortage of power generation within the Texas electric grid. ERCOT will direct electric transmission and distribution utilities, such as CenterPoint Energy, to begin controlled, rolling outages to bring the supply and demand for electricity back into balance.They generally last 15-45 minutes before being rotated to a different neighborhood to spread the effect of the outage among consumers, which would be the case whether outages are coordinated at the circuit level or individual meter level. Without this safety valve, power generating units could overload and begin shutting down and risk causing a domino effect of a statewide, lengthy outage. With smart meters, CenterPoint Energy is proposing to add a process prior to shutting down whole circuits to conduct a mass turn off of individual meters with 200 amps or less (i.e. residential and small commercial consumers) for 15 or 30 minutes, rotating consumers impacted during that outage as well as possible future outages.

    There are several benefits to consumers of this proposed process. By isolating non-critical service accounts (“critical” accounts include hospitals, police stations, water treatment facilities etc.) and spreading “load shed” to a wider distribution, critical accounts that happen to share the same circuit with non-critical accounts will be less affected in the event of an emergency. Curtailment of other important public safety devices and services such as traffic signals, police and fire stations, and water pumps and sewer lifts may also be avoided.

    People have caught on that Smart Meters mean their electric gets turned off at the whim of the electric company and some are refusing the ‘upgrade’

    Don’t want smart meter? Power shut off
    The rollout of smart electric meters across the country has run into a few snags: one woman doesn’t want one, and ended up in the dark as a result.

    You might not think that would be an issue. But it is, because Duke Energy is now beginning to disconnect any homeowner who refuses a new electric meter.

    Other electric companies are not pulling the plug…yet…..

    • rah says:

      Yep, an on demand natural gas fueled diesel whole how generator is in my future. Not because I think that their going to put one of those meters on me soon but because it just makes sense for me where I live and being near the end of a line.

    • bit chilly says:

      they are meant to be getting installed in the uk. there wont ever be one in my home. the first time anyone attempts to turn off the power to my home deliberately it will make the national newspapers.
      make a point of finding out where the heads of the power companies in your local areas live, your politicians and any other senior civil servants. remember ,they work for YOU ,not the other way around . if push comes to shove in winter time,pay them a visit. i guarantee their power wont be turned off .

      • rah says:

        Being near the end of the line means that I am more subject to outages for any reason. This week it was a driver that lost it and took down a pole and had to be life lined. Lost it in the heat of the day and then that night when they replaced the pole. Bought this house in 2001 and I have never lived anywhere in the US where power outages have been so frequent as where I live now. If it’s not a transformer it’s guys clearing to tree branches from the lines. If iit’s not those reasons then it’s something else. Lost power for three days in the winter due to an ice storm. Lost it another time during a record rain.

        I have a 10 hp Colman generator with which I can get by but the time is coming when I will be too friggen old to fool with it and the time when I hate the idea of having to deal with it is already here. So, for less than $4,000 I don’t have to worry about it.

        • mjc says:

          Gee…sounds like my place, and I’m not at the end of the line.

          We get a 5 to 10 minute outage about once a week, a longer than 10 minute about once a month and hour or more once about every three months, With a 12 hr or longer about 2x a year.

          If it wasn’t for the pesky little restriction about needing to have the nat gas generator in the house (I have free gas, but the restrictions on it make so anything must be IN the dwelling), I’d have had one hooked up long ago.

      • Gail Combs says:

        Sounds like time to round up all those inner city folks and bus them to some place nice and WARM.


  10. Gail Combs says:

    Jim Hunt says: @ August 28, 2014 at 8:03 pm

    My apologies Fergal. I’ve been absent objecting to a proposed large scale solar PV “farm” in the vicinity.
    Well at least you are enough of a conservationist to protest bird fryers. I am glad to hear that.

    • Jim Hunt says:

      I think you’re confusing solar PV with solar thermal Gail. We don’t get enough sunshine over here to be in danger of frying any birds!

      • Gail Combs says:

        I actually do know the difference and I have no problem with solar power in niche markets. I love my solar powered fence charger and I think solar powered traffic lights and street lighting makes a lot of sense from a safety stand point (power outage from storms)

        My remark was a bit of sarcasm based on the solar and wind they are are putting in here in the state of North Carolina and that I will have to pay for.
        On the public front:

        … In August 2007, the N.C. General Assembly acknowledged the benefits of renewable energy when it officially passed Senate Bill 3, creating a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS). The North Carolina REPS requires state electric utilities to gradually increase the portion of their electricity that comes from renewable sources or energy efficiency measures. By 2021, the investor-owned utilities operating in the state – Duke Energy Carolinas, Progress Energy Carolinas, and Dominion North Carolina Power – must derive at least 12.5 percent of the electricity they deliver from renewable sources or make equivalent consumption reductions through efficiency programs. Smaller electricity providers such as municipal utilities and electric membership cooperatives must generate at least 10 percent of their electricity from similar sources by 2018.[1]…

        On the Private Front:
        “North Carolina provides fantastic energy tax credits for solar energy, wind turbines, geothermal energy and energy efficiency. Save money and go green!”

        To pay for this they hiked the qualification for ‘farmland’ from $1000 dollars sold to $10,000 sold so people like my elderly neighbor who runs an acre veggie garden and farm stand gets nailed with ‘House lot” taxes instead of ‘Farm land taxes” (It about triples the tax bill.)

        The program:

        The credit is subject to various ceilings depending on sector and the type of renewable-energy system. The following credit limits for various technologies and sectors apply:
        A maximum of $3,500 for non-business solar energy equipment for active space heating, combined active space and domestic water-heating systems, and passive space heating;
        A maximum of $1,400 for non-business solar water-heating systems, including solar pool-heating systems;
        A maximum of $10,500 for renewable-energy systems for non-business use;
        A maximum of $8,400 for geothermal equipment installation;
        A maximum of $2,500,000 for solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass applications on commercial and industrial facilities, including photovoltaic (PV), daylighting, solar water-heating and space-heating technologies.

        All that money is going to come out of the pockets of someone and those someones are me and my neighbors.

        • mjc says:

          Most solar street lights cost around $500 – $1000, have about a 15 yr life (no maintenance…supposedly, haven’t run one so I can’t say for sure how long they will actually last) and no additional power costs. A small town can cut a bunch off its power bill by using them.

          Replacing a whole grid…not so much sense. Something like the streelights…if I were in a positiion to influence my town to do it, I’d be pushing for it.

          PS…we’ve been using solar fence chargers for years. They’ll even keep pigs in place (and I’ve only had to replace the batteries once in the last 18 yrs…got about 10 yrs out of the first set. The second have only been in operation about 18 months…the chargers were in the garage in between then and now).

      • Gail Combs says:

        The big problem with solar and wind aside from cost is the electric grid instability.

        25 August 2013 NATURE: US electrical grid on the edge of failure

        …Facebook can lose a few users and remain a perfectly stable network, but where the national grid is concerned simple geography dictates that it is always just a few transmission lines from collapse.

        That is according to a mathematical study of spatial networks by physicists in Israel and the United States. Study co-author Shlomo Havlin of Bar-Ilan University in Ramat-Gan, Israel, says that the research builds on earlier work by incorporating a more explicit analysis of how the spatial nature of physical networks affects their fundamental stability. The upshot, published today in Nature Physics, is that spatial networks are necessarily dependent on any number of critical nodes whose failure can lead to abrupt — and unpredictable — collapse…

        Energy Revolution Hiccups: Grid Instability Has Industry Scrambling for Solutions

        Sudden fluctuations in Germany’s power grid are causing major damage to a number of industrial companies. While many of them have responded by getting their own power generators and regulators to help minimize the risks, they warn that companies might be forced to leave if the government doesn’t deal with the issues fast.

        AEPs CEO provided testimony to the US Senate earlier this year available here:


        He does a good job of pointing out the problems facing the industry. It is not just environmental issues but also poorly designed market structure.

        Finally a long discussion pro and con about the cause of the rolling blackouts in TEXAS (This is the rolling blackout that _Jim denies ever happened BTW)

        Thursday, February 3, 2011
        …. To facilitate readers determining the facts for themselves, here are the links to the articles mentioned by Mr. Goggin in #3.

        READERS: Mr. Goggin replied, please see the comments. When we get the figures for the time in question, I’ll do a new posting.

        UPDATE 8:28pm Thursday: Mr. Goggin, since you are asserting that wind energy worked well, when you write your response that includes the amount of energy generated last night, please explain the following that pertains to the blackout period:

        Wind generators also appeared to be having problems, said Fraser; he had received reports of some turbines shutting down because of issues with ice on the blades. “The wind was blowing yesterday, but I’m not sure wind generation was available because they had problems with ice,” ,i.[ICE IN TEXAS?!?] he said. (At an Iberdrola wind farm near Corpus Christi that the Trib visited yesterday, most turbines were spinning steadily, in response to the grid operator’s call for maximum production. But the plant’s operator, Daniel Pitts, said that a few machines were having issues because the cold air had affected the nitrogen in the hydraulic system that helps run the turbines.) Dottie Roark, a spokeswoman for ERCOT, said that yesterday morning between 5 a.m. and 8 a.m., about 3,500 to 4,000 megawatts of wind was available (the state has about 10,000 megawatts of wind installed).

        These figures appear to approximately match yours (3,600 to 3,900 MW) which means that wind power — at best — reached 40% of its potential power during a period in which you characterize the winds as “very high” and the need was great (“grid operator’s call for maximum production”). The news story is here.

        Having 60% offline and “some turbines shutting down” certainly fall within my definition of “failed.” ….

        If the turbines were having problems in Texas I hate to think what type of problems they will have in NC where ice storms are rather common.

        • mjc says:

          The ones across the ‘valley’ from me handled Sandy quite well…but there was the one little problem with all the outgoing lines being down, so while they could have been making juice, they were idled because they couldn’t send it anywhere.

        • Jim Hunt says:

          “The big problem with solar and wind aside from cost is the electric grid instability.”

          Agreed, in which case you will no doubt love my latest blog post on that very topic!


          In simple terms, most of the electricity grid in South West England is already “overloaded” by “intermittent” renewable energy generation.

    • philjourdan says:

      He prefers bird sashimi.

  11. Gail Combs says:

    Caleb, I have been calling it murder for a long time.

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