Venus is very hot, because it has a thick, high pressure CO2 atmosphere. The only reason why Earth is not like Venus, is because we have oceans. The oceans absorb CO2 emitted from volcanoes and convert it into limestone. Without these limestone beds, earth would have a very thick, high pressure atmosphere and would be hot like Venus.
Proximity to the Sun is not the cause of high temperature on Venus. It has a thick cloud layer which reflects 70% of sunlight back into space, which is why Venus appears so bright. The surface of Venus receives much less sunlight than Earth’s surface.